Role of Battery Management System on the performance of electric vehicles

To conserve our environment from harmful emissions, electric cars have emerged as best alternative for a sustainable environment. With the increasing awareness about the benefits achieved through electric vehicles, there is a widespread adoption of e-mobility. There have been a lot of research initiatives going on to improve the performance of electric vehicles in the coming decade.

The performance of electric vehicles depends on a lot of factors such as cell voltage, battery life and health, safety, charging-discharging rates, etc. All these factors, one way or the other, Battery Management System are linked to the rechargeable batteries in electric vehicles. Therefore, to achieve an efficient output from these batteries, there is a need for monitoring and controlling various battery parameters. This role is performed by a Battery Management System (BMS) in all the electric vehicles, which ensures the complete tracking of all the functions performed by the battery.

Performs the task of managing and controlling the batteries for reliable and safe operation. The real time information obtained from these batteries helps in timely actions for an improved battery life and safe operation, finally contributing to improved performance and durability of electric vehicles.

Need for a Battery Management System

In the last two decades, there has been a continuous improvement in power and energy of Lithium ion batteries, resulting in the opening of new application areas across all industries. The features of high power density, low self-discharge, and reduced cost, make them a good option for electric vehicle batteries. Along with all the benefits available from these batteries, safety issues related with these batteries need to be considered for adoption of electric vehicles. Battery Management System in electric vehicles, is a specially designed electronic circuit that ensures the safety and stability of these battery packs.

A battery pack in an electric vehicle is a combination of multiple modules of cells and each module is a collection of individual cells. It is difficult to manage performance of a battery pack because each cell in each module can get charged and discharged at varying rates. In addition, each cell has a different operational state because of the difference in temperature, state of health and state of charge. Therefore, for an efficient and safe operation, each battery cell needs to be monitored independently.

Battery Management System is required to monitor the charge rate across the whole pack up to cell level. This monitoring ensures safe and reliable battery operation resulting in the production of more efficient and safer electric vehicles.

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